In 1939, educators Mercedes Thorp and Ann Carlson Granstrom founded Carlthorp School in a small house on 4th Street. At the end of the first year, the school had ten students, but by 1941, the school needed more space, and purchased a larger house at 438 San Vicente Boulevard. The c. 1925 Mediterranean Revival-style house served as both day and boarding school. During the 1950s, additional classrooms were added across the rear of the campus, and in 1976, the east building was added.
In 1920, Los Angeles Archbishop John J. Cantwell believed Santa Monica needed a Catholic hospital, and began to fundraise for St. John’s Hospital (1942, I.E. Loveless; demolished). Cantwell raised support and recruited the Sisters of Charity, a nursing order based in Leavenworth, Kansas, to erect the hospital. Construction began in 1939, and was completed three years later. Named for St. John the Apostle, the six–story, reinforced steel and concrete structure in designed in the late Streamline Moderne-style was located at 1328 22nd Street on a five-acre site. It cost $300,000 and featured horizontal banding and rounded towers on the front façade. The design featured sun decks on all floors and held 80 beds. The original design also provided for the addition of two wings and space was reserved for a Sisters’ and nurses’ home.
Because of the Santa Monica plant of Douglas Aircraft’s importance in the war effort and the fear of a Japanese attack on the west coast, the Santa Monica plant spent World War II shielded by a sophisticated camouflage structure. Designed by Edward Huntsman-Trout and architect H. Roy Kelley and supplemented with the work of set designers from Warner Brothers, the camouflage consisted of a tension compression structure that covered the entire mile-long plant. The camouflage was a residential neighborhood composed of burlap. A dummy aircraft plant was erected adjacent to the neighborhood. The camouflage structure was erected c. 1942 and remained until July 1945.
In 1936, the Merle Norman company constructed new headquarters at 2525 Main Street (H.G. Thursby, 1936; City of Santa Monica Landmark #44).
In 1921, Donald Douglas incorporated Douglas Aircraft. Engineers at his company included James H. Kindelberger, Jack K. Northrop, and Gerard Vultee, all of whom eventually led major Los Angeles County aircraft companies. In 1922, Douglas Aircraft moved to an abandoned movie studio on Wilshire Boulevard in Santa Monica (present-day Douglas Park). At this time Douglas started using the future site of Clover Field (later the Santa Monica Airport) as a testing ground for production aircraft.
The Penthouse (1964, Kenneth Lind) was a $3 million, nine-story, 80-unit Modern style apartment tower constructed at Inspiration Point in Palisades Park. Architect Kenneth Lind and Sarah Jane Lapin developed the project. Innovatively constructed in the lift-slab method, Lind designed the building to have no corridors – instead, each apartment stretches from one side of the building to the other.
The first African American residents arrived in Santa Monica in the late 19th century, and settled between 2nd and 6th Streets (present day Civic Center), in proximity to Phillips Chapel, home to Reverend Charles H. Phillips’ Colored Methodist Episcopal Church (today the Christian Methodist Episcopal Church), established in 1908. The congregation first met in Hull’s Hall at 1519 3rd Street (demolished) before moving to its permanent home at 2001 4th Street (City of Santa Monica Landmark #68), near the Ocean Park neighborhood of Santa Monica.
There are two residential tracts within the Northeast neighborhood, both subdivided in the first two decades of the 20th century. The first of these was Tract 3000, also known as Fairmount Villas and Fairmount Hills, was bounded by Montana on the north, Wilshire on the south, Stanford Street on the east, and 26th Street on the west. In 1906, an unnamed syndicate of Venice, Ocean Park and Santa Monica investors “bought out the entire group of 133 lots…ranging from one-half acre to one acre.” In about 1915, the parcels were re-subdivided from the larger sizes to narrow, 50’ wide parcels. At this time, two large parcels along Wilshire Boulevard were removed from the subdivision.
In December 1945, Commanding General of the Army Air Force H. H. “Hap” Arnold, Secretary of War consultant Edward Bowles, president of the Douglas Aircraft Company Donald Douglas, Douglas chief engineer Arthur Raymond, and Raymond's assistant Franklin Collbohm set up “Project RAND” under special contract to the Douglas Aircraft Company. Taking its name from “research and development,” Project RAND was meant to leverage the importance of technological research and development for success on the battlefield. Based on experiences during World War II, individuals in the War Department Office of Scientific Research and Development identified the importance of private enterprise in connecting military planning with research and established RAND.
Advertisement for Serra Vista Townsite. Source: Los Angeles Times.
In the 1970s, Dogtown was full of young surfers hungry to prove themselves. Responding to their needs and talent, Jeff Ho Surfboards and Zephyr Productions shop established the Zephyr Surf Team (the “Z-Boys”). The team surfed the area near the abandoned Pacific Ocean Park Pier, guarding it against visiting surfers unfamiliar with the treacherous waters. The team also took up skateboarding as a pastime when the waves were too calm to surf. Urethane skateboard wheels were invented in 1972, revolutionizing the sport by making skateboarding smoother, faster, and safer. Skateboarding experienced a renaissance, and Dogtown soon became the epicenter of Santa Monica’s skateboarding subculture.
Towner Terrace was lauded as “Santa Monica’s Close-In Subdivision Where Opportunity Knocks the Loudest, Where Your Future is Assured.” A large, irregularly shaped tract, it was bounded by the Pacific Electric tracks to the north, Pico Boulevard and Michigan Avenue to the south, 14th Street to the east and either 8th Street (present-day Lincoln Boulevard) or the 11th Street alleyway to the south. Towner Terrace was part of the area known as Irwin Heights. It was marketed for its proximity to the ocean, accessibility to Los Angeles by streetcar, and to the newly completed Pico Boulevard — designed to shorten the distance to Los Angeles.
Please join the City of Santa Monica Planning and Community Development department and the project team for the second Community Outreach Meeting on Thursday, November 3! At the meeting, City staff and the consultant team will provide an interim progress update of the HRI Update project.
Thursday, November 3, 2016
6:30pm - 8:30pm
Santa Monica Main Library
Martin Luther King, Jr. Auditorium
601 Santa Monica Boulevard
Santa Monica, CA 90401
In 1899 fisherman Hatsuji Sano established a residential colony immediately northwest of the Long Wharf. At its peak, the village comprised approximately 300 permanent residents who lived in wooden beachfront cabins on land leased from the Southern Pacific Railroad. The residents were mostly Japanese fisherman, along with a small number of Russian fisher families who used the Long Wharf to unload their catches. The fish was commonly sold at Japanese and Chinese markets in Los Angeles.
During the 1920s and 1930s, larger, more ambitious multi-family residences were developed in the northern and western portions of Santa Monica’s original township. One prominent example is the Mediterranean Revival-style Sovereign Apartments (1929, Kurt Meyer-Raden; City of Santa Monica Landmark #31) at 205 N. Washington Avenue.